# Inverse transform sampling

Continuing from Day 5, I read another interesting post along the same line on stackoverflow. However, this time, slightly reforming the question as “How to generate a random point within a circle (uniformly)?” Eventhough the answer from **aioobe** on stackoverflow explained it very well, I still decided to summarize and document for my future self and also to review the concept of **Inverse transform sampling**.

In order to dirctly sample from a circle without using a square and Monte Carlo simulation, we can try to gather the cumulative density function (CDF, or F(r)) and apply Inverse transform sampling to solve it.

#### How to come up with CDF?

As explained in the above stackoverflow, to uniformly sample from a circle we cannot solely sample \(r\) uniformly from \((0, R)\) and \(\theta\) from \((0, 2\pi)\). This is because as r is away from the center \((0, 0)\), the area being summarized given an incremental increase in \(r\) (e.g. \(d\)) also get larger, meaning that we’d need more samples to be randomly chosen, as the r increases from d to 2d, to achieve uniformly distributed sampling.

If we consider the increase in circumference when the random radius increases from \(d\) to \(2d\), the increase in the length of the circumference from \(2 \pi d\) to \(4\pi d\) suggests that the instaneous increase in the probability is linearly to increase in random variable \(r\) as d (a.k.a. \(f(r) \propto r\))

With the property of probability:

\[\int_0^R f(r) dr = \int_0^R kr dr = 1\]We know that:

\[k\frac{R^2}{2} = 1, k = \frac{2}{R^2}\]Therefore:

\[f(r) = \frac{2}{R^2}r, F(r) = \frac{2}{R^2}\frac{r^2}{2} = \frac{r^2}{R^2}\]#### Leveraging Inverse transform sampling!

You might like to check the wikipedia page, but the concept is relatively simple: It might be hard to generate a random sample directly. However, if we know its CDF (\(F(x)\)), we can usually easily sample randomly from a uniform distribution (u) and apply \(F^-1(u)\) to be a random sample of X! In math:

\[F_x(x) = Pr(X \leq x) = u\]where

\[u \sim U(0, 1)\]then

\[x = F_X^{-1}(u)\]#### Linking both pieces together

Here if we sample \(u\) uniformly from \(U(0, 1)\)

\[F(r) = \frac{r^2}{R^2} = u\] \[r^2 = R^2 u\]As a result:

- We will sample r with the following algorithm:

- And we will uniformly sample \(\theta\) as:

where

\[u_1 \sim U(0, 1)\]- Transformation from polar to Cartesian coordinate:

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R = 1
N = 1000
def random_circle_sample(R, N):
"""
Random unifromly sample N samples from a circle
N: Number of simulation/samples
R: radius of the circle
"""
u = np.random.uniform(0, 1, N)
theta = 2 * math.pi * np.random.uniform(0, 1, N)
r = R * np.sqrt(u)
y = r*np.sin(theta)
x = r*np.cos(theta)
plt.figure(figsize=(8, 8), dpi=80)
plt.scatter(x, y)
plt.show()

Example notebook with above example can be found here.